La Educación de Pitágoras

Our western world is so filled with Pythagorean concepts that we often forget the specific notions which Pythagoras had given us in Antiquity. El propósito de este artículo es recordarlos.

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En la antigüedad, the Pythagorean teaching had two fields: one for knowledge, the other of meditation. Estas dos áreas, which often intermingled and enriched each other, se puede comparar con dos niveles y Porfirio en su Vida de Pitágoras (§ § 46-49) tells us:

It also reflects a way of life so specific that the Pythagoreans were recognized as such by their social behavior rather than by specific concepts taught in their schools, especially for the most part, these notions should be kept secret, because the first seekers as both mystics and mathematicians thought that the untimely and clumsy use of the sacred laws organizing the world could lead to a serious upheaval in the universe.

El Camino de la Vida de Pitágoras

Pitágoras PBUSTheir lifestyle corresponded to the daily updating of the essential qualities taught and described in the Golden Verses, advice which is still perfectly useful in our day.

The desire for justice (dikaïosunê) was expressed with uncompromising courage (andreia) but with serenity (sophrosunê), los pitagóricos no aceptaron a enojarse y perder el control de sus acciones y su discurso. They wanted to live in harmony (harmonia) and act only in a balanced way at the right time (kairos). Los pitagóricos se mostraron en una actitud tan reservada que su comportamiento contrasta profundamente con el resto de la población, que era bastante exuberante y actuó con gesticulaciones y énfasis verbales.

Their feeling of brotherhood (philia) superado los miembros de su grupo restringido; which reflected a deep compassion in the helping of all human beings, including animals, – which resulted in a vegetarian diet as strict as possible, and their refusal to participate in offerings resulting from bloody sacrifices.

Their divine conception was henotheistic, divinity in its original aspects, totally depersonalized, manifested by the laws of mathematics and harmonies. Las deidades del panteón griego y mitos asociados con ellos eran para ellos como mantas, representing in symbolic imagery the mathematical laws of the order of the universe. Los "kosmos" (de kosmios, which means in good order, and properly arranged) was the term always used by Pythagoras to show precisely that the laws of the universe did not come from the desires and whims of gods, as some myths suggested. Ellos participaron en los diversos cultos del día, and by their presence gave these religions a vaster and deeper dimension.

Their belief in the reincarnation of the soul led them to consider the possible emergence in the memory, some knowledge from a sometimes distant past. La reencarnación se hace a veces en forma de animal, without it being a punishment, pero el deseo era convertirse en un pitagórico philanthropotatos daimon, a spirit guide who is no longer required to incarnate and, aunque libre de la éter, elige permanecer en la órbita de la luna y la tierra para ayudar a la humanidad.

The Pythagoreans had to first cleanse their mind, by eliminating the hasty and erroneous understandings in a deliberate personal view to be as objective as possible, y practicar un diario psychostasia un ajuste de su comportamiento: increasing the actions that were good and decreasing the quantity and number of bad actions, – and without a triumphant narcissism or sterile guilt.

In the Pythagorean groups, there was room for both women and for men, but this was sometimes quite specific and related to the culture of the time. sin embargo, we cannot ignore that at least on two occasions, the 4th and 5th centuries CE, the order was directed by a woman, Hypatia in Alexandria Egypt (who was cruelly stoned to death and dismembered by the Christians) and Asclepigenia (ella era el último conocer los sonidos sagrados egipcios, – she was the daughter of Plutarchus and initiator of Proclus).

Fuera de su comunidad, the measured behavior of the disciples of Pythagoras engendered respect and admiration for some, distrust and rejection from others. Pitagorismo, while being harmoniously and active in society, was thus a movement that had its own specific requirements. La mayoría de estas reglas de la vida fueron adoptados posteriormente por muchas personas, even until our present time, without necessarily knowing that they were from our ancient tradition.

El enfoque matemático y el Sagrado Cosmos

“Once the mind-intellect was cleansed”, había una posibilidad de llegar a las verdades "inmutables" (Porphyre, §46), that is to approach validly the study of the creative archetypes of the organized cosmos. En otras palabras, el Psique habiendo abandonado su influencia personal derivada de sus impulsos y deseos físicos, es el nous que se convirtió en accesible a la comprensión. Ahora no era para ellos una armonía perfecta, even a real identity, Entre los nous de Zeus, that of the individual man and all the laws which organized the cosmos.

After the meditative preparation, then began the exercises which were essentially focused on the Numbers and the Proportions considered as divine emanations and allowing the sudden intuitive understanding of the original laws and to a beneficial ecstasy. El retorno a esos momentos de meditación (theôrêmata), it was necessary to organize the contents carefully, if possibly, mathematically (mathêmata). Ellos descubrieron los secretos de la organización del mundo que consideraban como algo perfectamente armoniosa; the myths hid these secrets while giving keys to understand them.

During successive meditations, y de acuerdo con el grado de desarrollo de la psique y la abertura de la nous, the reflections of these small groups sometimes plunged them into such a confusion that they required absolute secrecy. Tal fue el drama de el descubrimiento de que la raíz de 2 was an irrational number, not representable numerically: would there be thus faults in the harmonious organization of the cosmos? De ahí que la interpretación agónica del Akousma "UNO, TWO”, also corresponding to the problem posed of the duplication of the surface of the altar at Delphi, – calculating numerically the transition that would bring the root of 2.

También notamos que este campo matemático, at once and at the same time, scientific and artistic, developed and gave inspiration to a number of scholars and artists. Vemos Kepler, a Pythagorean, thought that it was from the five Platonic solids that we could find the law which governs distances, speeds, and the planets. Una obra de arte debe reflejar estas proporciones divinas, and, although the “Golden number” was defined clearly over the centuries, it only became part of a number of works from the Renaissance until our time, as for example, in the paintings of Salvador Dali.

The Religious, Meditativa y Eufórico Buscar

El acceso a la Divinidad como organizador dinámico del cosmos y de los arquetipos enterrados dentro de nuestra nous, was achieved by ecstatic meditations that were based on these structures “at the border of the bodies and the immaterial” (Porphyre, §47), that is to say, after the purification of the intellect. Pitagóricos se reunieron regularmente en lugares con armonía sagrada (Temples, or, during the Christian persecutions who desecrated the antique Temples, in natural places close to a pure source (spring water) to protect in their deep meditations the adequate peace allowing for Divine inspiration.

Numbers as the Proportions were once and at the same time, mathematical elements and divine emanations. Para revelarlos sin reserva ni precaución representaba no sólo una especie de profanación de lo sagrado, but also a danger according to the fact what an ill-intentioned hearer would have been able to do with this knowledge. (Disintegration of the cosmos!)

Los pitagóricos tenían una muy amplia, non-dogmatic respect of religious paths, but they saw “beyond these religious paths”, as Plutarch said clearly in his text (§ 21) on the “E” of Delphi: “Those who hold that Apollo and the sun are the same, it is right and proper that we welcome and love for their goodness of heart in placing their concept of the god in that thing which they honor most of all the things that they know and yearn for. Pero, as though they were now having a sleepy vision of the god amid the loveliest of dreams, let us wake them and urge them to proceed to loftier heights and to contemplate the waking vision of him, and what he truly is, but to pay honor also to this imagery of him in the sun and to revere the creative power associated with it, in so far as it is possible by what is perceived through the senses to gain an image of what is conceived in the mind, and by that which is ever in motion an image of that which moves not, una imagen que, de alguna manera u otra transmite algunos RECOGE ESPIGAS reflejo y el reflejo de su bondad y bendición ".[1]

This Pythagorean approach has remained during the centuries, and until our day. No fue Dante guiado por el pitagórico Virgilio cruzar la oscuridad sinuosos caminos del infierno y el purgatorio (to free his primitive impulses, to pacify his emotions, y para limpiar hi intelecto) to arrive at the ultimate goal and enjoy in the ecstasy of paradise, this time guided by Beatrice, that is to say, by the ecstatic “bliss”, to discover the luminous Rose representing the superior Divinity?

En nuestro tiempo también, en nuestros grupos pitagóricas europeos, junto a los muy numerosos miembros que profesan ninguna religión, and with the coexistence of Christians, Jews, Sufis, Hindus, Buddhists, and spiritualists, who were opened to the spiritual path living in our rites, les permitió vivir de una manera diferente, non-dogmatic, la religión del origen de todo.

Vamos apreciar esta tradición pitagórica que se abre a nosotros y vamos a tratar de irradiar a nuestro alrededor las características del espíritu, intelligence and spiritual opening, without having to say that this is Pythagoreanism.

No es el principal objetivo que nos impulsa es elevar el nivel ético y espiritual de las personas que podrían encontrar una mayor felicidad en nuestro camino, and then by their radiance, to give to those around them this higher level of being, creating a more harmonious society?

[1] The translation comes from the Loeb Classical Library, Plutarch – Moralia – Volume V, “The E at Delphi”. (De E Apud Delphos)

 

Escrito por:  Dr.. Jean Dierkens

Reproducido con el permiso de

el Instituto Neo-Pitagorico – Una lámpara

Ano Sin LXXX 281-284 – Janeiro – Dezembro 2011