Our western world is so filled with Pythagorean concepts that we often forget the specific notions which Pythagoras had given us in Antiquity. Le but de cet article est de les rappeler.
Dans l'antiquité, the Pythagorean teaching had two fields: one for knowledge, the other of meditation. Ces deux zones, which often intermingled and enriched each other, peut être comparé à deux niveaux et de porphyre dans sa Vie de Pythagore (§ § 46-49) tells us:
It also reflects a way of life so specific that the Pythagoreans were recognized as such by their social behavior rather than by specific concepts taught in their schools, especially for the most part, these notions should be kept secret, because the first seekers as both mystics and mathematicians thought that the untimely and clumsy use of the sacred laws organizing the world could lead to a serious upheaval in the universe.
Le Chemin de la Vie de Pythagore
The desire for justice (dikaïosunê) was expressed with uncompromising courage (andreia) but with serenity (sophrosunê), les pythagoriciens n'a pas accepté de se mettre en colère et de perdre le contrôle de leurs actions et leurs discours. They wanted to live in harmony (harmonia) and act only in a balanced way at the right time (kairos). Les pythagoriciens se montraient dans une telle attitude réservée que leur comportement contrastait profondément avec le reste de la population qui était plutôt exubérant et a agi avec gesticulations verbales et accents.
Their feeling of brotherhood (philia) dépassé les membres de leur groupe restreint; which reflected a deep compassion in the helping of all human beings, including animals, – which resulted in a vegetarian diet as strict as possible, and their refusal to participate in offerings resulting from bloody sacrifices.
Their divine conception was henotheistic, divinity in its original aspects, totally depersonalized, manifested by the laws of mathematics and harmonies. Les divinités du panthéon grec et les mythes associés avec eux étaient pour eux comme des couvertures, representing in symbolic imagery the mathematical laws of the order of the universe. La "kosmos" (de kosmios, which means in good order, and properly arranged) was the term always used by Pythagoras to show precisely that the laws of the universe did not come from the desires and whims of gods, as some myths suggested. Ils ont participé aux divers cultes de la journée, and by their presence gave these religions a vaster and deeper dimension.
Their belief in the reincarnation of the soul led them to consider the possible emergence in the memory, some knowledge from a sometimes distant past. Réincarnation a parfois été fait sous forme animale, without it being a punishment, mais le désir était de devenir un pythagoricien philanthropotatos Daimon, a spirit guide who is no longer required to incarnate and, bien que libre de la éther, choisit rester dans l'orbite de la lune et de la terre pour aider l'humanité.
The Pythagoreans had to first cleanse their mind, by eliminating the hasty and erroneous understandings in a deliberate personal view to be as objective as possible, et de pratiquer un jour psychostasia l'adaptation de leur comportement: increasing the actions that were good and decreasing the quantity and number of bad actions, – and without a triumphant narcissism or sterile guilt.
In the Pythagorean groups, there was room for both women and for men, but this was sometimes quite specific and related to the culture of the time. toutefois, we cannot ignore that at least on two occasions, the 4th and 5th centuries CE, the order was directed by a woman, Hypatia in Alexandria Egypt (who was cruelly stoned to death and dismembered by the Christians) and Asclepigenia (elle était le dernier de connaître les sons sacrés égyptiens, – she was the daughter of Plutarchus and initiator of Proclus).
En dehors de leur communauté, the measured behavior of the disciples of Pythagoras engendered respect and admiration for some, distrust and rejection from others. Pythagorisme, while being harmoniously and active in society, was thus a movement that had its own specific requirements. La plupart de ces règles de vie ont ensuite été adoptées par de nombreuses personnes, even until our present time, without necessarily knowing that they were from our ancient tradition.
L'approche mathématique et le Sacré Cosmos
“Once the mind-intellect was cleansed”, il y avait une capacité à atteindre les vérités «immuables» (Porphyre, §46), that is to approach validly the study of the creative archetypes of the organized cosmos. Autrement dit, la Psyché avoir abandonné son influence personnelle découlant de ses lecteurs et désirs physiques, c'est le noûs qui est devenu accessible à la compréhension. Maintenant, il était pour eux une parfaite harmonie, even a real identity, entre le noûs de Zeus, that of the individual man and all the laws which organized the cosmos.
After the meditative preparation, then began the exercises which were essentially focused on the Numbers and the Proportions considered as divine emanations and allowing the sudden intuitive understanding of the original laws and to a beneficial ecstasy. Le retour à ces moments méditatifs (theôrêmata), it was necessary to organize the contents carefully, if possibly, mathematically (mathêmata). Ils ont découvert les secrets de l'organisation du monde qu'ils considéraient comme parfaitement harmonieuse; the myths hid these secrets while giving keys to understand them.
During successive meditations, et en fonction du degré de développement du psychisme et l'ouverture dans la noûs, the reflections of these small groups sometimes plunged them into such a confusion that they required absolute secrecy. Tel était le théâtre de la découverte que la racine de 2 was an irrational number, not representable numerically: would there be thus faults in the harmonious organization of the cosmos? D'où l'interprétation déchirante de l'Akousma "ONE, TWO”, also corresponding to the problem posed of the duplication of the surface of the altar at Delphi, – calculating numerically the transition that would bring the root of 2.
Nous remarquons aussi que ce domaine mathématique, at once and at the same time, scientific and artistic, developed and gave inspiration to a number of scholars and artists. Nous voyons Kepler, a Pythagorean, thought that it was from the five Platonic solids that we could find the law which governs distances, speeds, and the planets. Une œuvre d'art doit refléter ces divines proportions, and, although the “Golden number” was defined clearly over the centuries, it only became part of a number of works from the Renaissance until our time, as for example, in the paintings of Salvador Dali.
The Religious, Recherche méditatif et extatique
L'accès à la Divine comme l'organisateur dynamique du cosmos et les archétypes enfouis au sein de notre noûs, was achieved by ecstatic meditations that were based on these structures “at the border of the bodies and the immaterial” (Porphyre, §47), that is to say, after the purification of the intellect. Pythagoriciens réunis régulièrement dans des endroits avec l'harmonie sacrée (Temples, or, during the Christian persecutions who desecrated the antique Temples, in natural places close to a pure source (spring water) to protect in their deep meditations the adequate peace allowing for Divine inspiration.
Numbers as the Proportions were once and at the same time, mathematical elements and divine emanations. Pour les révéler sans réserve ni précaution représentés non seulement une sorte de profanation du sacré, but also a danger according to the fact what an ill-intentioned hearer would have been able to do with this knowledge. (Disintegration of the cosmos!)
Les pythagoriciens avaient une très large, non-dogmatic respect of religious paths, but they saw “beyond these religious paths”, as Plutarch said clearly in his text (§ 21) on the “E” of Delphi: “Those who hold that Apollo and the sun are the same, it is right and proper that we welcome and love for their goodness of heart in placing their concept of the god in that thing which they honor most of all the things that they know and yearn for. Mais, as though they were now having a sleepy vision of the god amid the loveliest of dreams, let us wake them and urge them to proceed to loftier heights and to contemplate the waking vision of him, and what he truly is, but to pay honor also to this imagery of him in the sun and to revere the creative power associated with it, in so far as it is possible by what is perceived through the senses to gain an image of what is conceived in the mind, and by that which is ever in motion an image of that which moves not, une image qui d'une manière ou l'autre transmet quelques glane réfléchissant et en miroir sa gentillesse et sa bénédiction. "
This Pythagorean approach has remained during the centuries, and until our day. Pas été Dante guidé par le pythagoricien Virgile à traverser l'obscurité chemins de l'enfer et du purgatoire liquidation (to free his primitive impulses, to pacify his emotions, et pour nettoyer l'intellect salut) to arrive at the ultimate goal and enjoy in the ecstasy of paradise, this time guided by Beatrice, that is to say, by the ecstatic “bliss”, to discover the luminous Rose representing the superior Divinity?
Dans notre temps aussi, dans nos groupes de Pythagore européennes, à côté des très nombreux membres qui professent aucune religion, and with the coexistence of Christians, Jews, Sufis, Hindus, Buddhists, and spiritualists, who were opened to the spiritual path living in our rites, permis de vivre d'une manière différente, non-dogmatic, la religion de l'origine de tout.
Laissez apprécier cette tradition pythagoricienne qui est ouvert pour nous et essayons de rayonner autour de nous ses caractéristiques de l'esprit, intelligence and spiritual opening, without having to say that this is Pythagoreanism.
Est pas le but principal, qui nous pousse à nous est d'élever le niveau éthique et spirituelle des personnes qui pourraient trouver un plus grand bonheur sur notre chemin, and then by their radiance, to give to those around them this higher level of being, creating a more harmonious society?
 The translation comes from the Loeb Classical Library, Plutarch – Moralia – Volume V, “The E at Delphi”. (De E Apud Delphos)
Écrit par: Dr. Jean Dierkens
Reproduit avec l'aimable autorisation de
l'Institut néo-Pitagorico – Lampe
Ano Aucune LXXX 281-284 – Janeiro – Dezembro 2011